Slow HTTP downloads through Cisco ASA 5500

Recently we noticed weird behavior downloading files from certain sites. The transfer would start out fast (around 10 MB/s), then after a couple of seconds it would plummet to around 9 KB/s. It didn’t happen for every file or every site: downloads from S3 buckets were still particularly fast. But some files that I remember being particularly fast were now showing this weird fast/slow/fast/slow behavior, for example the Sun JDK and ISOs from rit.edu that used to saturate our pipe were now getting all cRAzY.

After some poking around I decided to test HTTP versus FTP to see if it could be an application/protocol-level issue. The easiest way to do this was to find a file available via both FTP and HTTP and download it via both protocols. This is where mirrors.rit.edu came in handy. I used cURL to download it and noticed that via HTTP it was much slower than over FTP:

[evan@boba 16:07:03 ~]$ curl -O ftp://mirrors.rit.edu/pub/centos/6/isos/x86_64/CentOS-6.2-x86_64-netinstall.iso
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100  227M  100  227M    0     0   9.8M      0  0:00:22  0:00:22 --:--:-- 7816k
[evan@boba 16:07:33 ~]$ rm CentOS-6.2-x86_64-netinstall.iso 
[evan@boba 16:07:39 ~]$ curl -O http://mirrors.rit.edu/centos/6/isos/x86_64/CentOS-6.2-x86_64-netinstall.iso
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100  227M  100  227M    0     0  5686k      0  0:00:40  0:00:40 --:--:-- 6269k

22 seconds via FTP at 9.8MB/s average, 40 seconds over HTTP at 5.6 MB/s average (which was one of the better HTTP runs).

This was affecting all machines on our network, and had nothing to do with the per-machine iptables rules (verified by flushing all rules). The only thing I could think of that might affect all machines, but only HTTP and not FTP would be something like packet inspection. Well, turns out that http packet inspection is on by default on the ASA. So I disabled it as described here:

Zeus(config)# conf t
Zeus(config)# policy-map global_policy
Zeus(config-pmap)# class inspection_default
Zeus(config-pmap-c)# no inspect http
Zeus(config-pmap-c)# write mem
Building configuration...

Since then HTTP transfers have been consistently fast.

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Using rrdtool to generate server load & bandwidth graphs

I’ve been using MRTG and routers2.cgi for years to graph the various aspects of a server that warrant monitoring. I’ve long known that they used something called rrdtool to do… well, something, but never had a need or desire to figure out exactly what that was.

But, having just moved my site to a new server, I was curious how the server would handle the load. Rather than setting up some behemoth like Nagios or Zabbix, which are full monitoring/alerting suites, I just wanted graphing. As I said, in the past I’ve used MRTG or routers2.cgi for this but both of them were overkill for me in this case. Since both of them used rrdtool, I figured that was a good place to look.

The two metrics I want to record are server load and in/out bandwidth. The first step is to create the RRDs (round robin databases). This was done via these commands:

# rrdtool create /mrtg/load.rrd --start N DS:load1:GAUGE:600:0:100 DS:load5:GAUGE:600:0:100 DS:load15:GAUGE:600:0:100 RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:2:800

# rrdtool create /mrtg/eth1.rrd --start N DS:in:COUNTER:600:0:10000000000 DS:out:COUNTER:600:0:10000000000 RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:2:800

A good explanation of what these various fields mean is here. In short, each “DS:” section defines a “column” (for fellow RDBMS users) in the database. The first one has 3 “columns,” named load1, load5, load15, each of which will contain GAUGE data. The second one contains two COUNTER fields, representing the bytes in/out for interface eth1.

To actually get the data I poll snmpd via this bash script:

#!/bin/bash

rrdupdate /mrtg/load.rrd N:
`/usr/bin/snmpget -v 2c -c public -Oqv localhost laLoad.1`:
`/usr/bin/snmpget -v 2c -c public -Oqv localhost laLoad.2`:
`/usr/bin/snmpget -v 2c -c public -Oqv localhost laLoad.3`

rrdupdate /mrtg/eth1.rrd N:
`/usr/bin/snmpget -v 2c -c public -Oqv localhost ifInOctets.3`:
`/usr/bin/snmpget -v 2c -c public -Oqv localhost ifOutOctets.3`

I have that run every 5 minutes via cron. Then to generate the actual graph, I run this script via cron:

#!/bin/bash

rrdtool graph /var/www/html/graphs/load.png 
        -N 
        -E 
        --start now-30hours 
        --title "Load Averages" 
        --width 300
         --x-grid MINUTE:60:HOUR:2:HOUR:4:0:%H
        --height 200 
        -u 1.0 
        --lower-limit 0
        --vertical-label "Load Avg" 
        --full-size-mode 
-a PNG --title="Load Avg" 
'DEF:load1=/mrtg/load.rrd:load1:AVERAGE' 
'VDEF:load1last=load1,LAST' 
'DEF:load5=/mrtg/load.rrd:load5:AVERAGE' 
'DEF:load15=/mrtg/load.rrd:load15:AVERAGE' 
'AREA:load15#33CC33:15 Min Load Avg ' 
'LINE1:load1#0000ff:1 Min Load Avg ' 
'GPRINT:load1:AVERAGE:"Load1 Avg:%3.2lf"' 
'GPRINT:load1last:Drawn at %Y-%m-%d, %H:%M:strftime' 
#'LINE1:load5#ff00ff:5 Min Load Avg ' 

 
rrdtool graph /var/www/html/graphs/eth1.png 
        -N 
        -E 
        --start now-30hours 
        --title "eth1 traffic" 
        --width 300
         --x-grid MINUTE:60:HOUR:2:HOUR:4:0:%H
        --height 200 
        -u 1000000 
        --lower-limit 0
        --vertical-label "bps" 
        --full-size-mode 
-a PNG --title="eth1 traffic" 
'DEF:eth1in=/mrtg/eth1.rrd:in:AVERAGE' 
'CDEF:eth1inbits=eth1in,8,*' 
'VDEF:eth1last=eth1in,LAST' 
'DEF:eth1out=/mrtg/eth1.rrd:out:AVERAGE' 
'CDEF:eth1outbits=eth1out,8,*' 
'AREA:eth1inbits#33CC33:eth1 in ' 
'LINE1:eth1outbits#0000ff:eth1 out' 
'GPRINT:eth1last:Drawn at %Y-%m-%d, %H:%M:strftime' 

The final graphs look decent, though not very fancy, but I’ll play around with it a bit more:

eth1 graph
eth1 graph
load graph
load graph

Upcoming downtime

I’ll be moving this site to a new hosting provider over the next few days, so there will likely be some downtime. Not that this site gets that many repeat visitors, but figured I’d give a heads-up so Google can cache this ahead of time.